Definition of Swimming: Basic Techniques, Types of Style, Rules and Equipment

Definition of Swimming – Grameds, if there is a sport that has existed long before it was established as a sport, swimming is one example. Because, the existence of swimming is one of the instincts for survival.

Good for hunting, crossing the water, or saving yourself from drowning. But how did swimming become such a popular sport now? Let’s discuss, Grameds.

Swimming is done for various purposes, both for refreshing, hobbies, and professional tournaments. In the countryside, we can see people swimming in the river.

In coastal areas, we see children playing and practicing their swimming skills on the beach. In cities, many of us find swimming pools as a place to do this sport.

A. Definition of Swimming

There are many opinions that explain the meaning of this sport, but in short, swimming is a sport that is done in water, by moving the body (hands and feet) so as not to drown.

Long before the sport of swimming was officially launched , swimming had been done centuries before. The discovery of a painting of a swimmer on the wall of the Swimmer’s Cave not far from Wadi Sora, Gilf Kebir, Egypt, is evidence that swimming has been clearly documented since prehistoric times. The paintings in the cave depict people swimming in a freestyle and animal-like style when swimming.

Is it true that there was freestyle at that time? According to Badruzzaman, the existence of a wax stamp depicting four swimmers using the freestyle from 400 to 900 BC, can be used as evidence that freestyle has existed since time immemorial.

The ancient Romans and Greeks made the ability to swim a fundamental assessment for military purposes. A soldier is required to survive in any conditions, including drowning or saving himself in the water. Warriors, knights, and samurai were required to be able to ride horses, cook, archery, hunt, write poetry, and swim.
The Best Swimming Book for Beginners

According to historical records, the oldest swimming competition was held by Emperor Sigui in 36 BC. But a language professor, Nikolaus Wynmann wrote a book on swimming in 1538. The book he gave the title Der Schwimmer oder ein Zwiegespräch über die Schwimmkunst ( Swimmer or Dialogue on the Art of Swimming) . The book was read by many people and since then, many began to learn the sport of swimming.

Meanwhile, swimming was seriously developed by modern society in London, England in the 19th century. Initially, there were only six swimming pools in the city. Along with its development, several swimming associations began to be established.

The popularity of swimming is increasingly spread after a British Navy captain, Matthew Webb, managed to cross the Gulf of England by swimming without using aids. In 1875, he swam across the waters connecting France and England as far as 34 km for 21 hours 45 minutes. His success made him famous and made swimming more attractive. In 1896, for the first time swimming was included in the Olympic championship in Athens, Greece.

B. Organizations that Oversee Swimming

The international swimming parent organization Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) was founded on 19 July 1908 at the Manchester Hotel, London, England. At that time, FINA was initiated by eight swimming federations, namely Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Great Britain, Germany, France and Sweden. The organization also oversees diving, water polo, scenic swimming, and open water swimming. Now the organization is based in Lausanne, Switzerland. These sports are participated by FINA in the FINA World Swimming Championships.

On a national scale, swimming and the like are under the auspices of the All-Indonesian Swimming Association (PRSI). This organization was founded in Jakarta on March 21, 1951. Initially, in Indonesia there were only a few swimming pools. However, these facilities are still very rare because they can only be accessed by the nobility and the Dutch.

However, when the Japanese came to Indonesia, access to the swimming pool was opened for the general public. Since then, more and more Indonesians have been able to do swimming in the pool.

C. Basic Techniques for Swimming

Swimming has several styles. Before we discuss the swimming style, we really need Grameds to learn some basic techniques that we must master first. Let’s talk about how to get better at swimming faster.

1. Floating Technique

For beginners, this technique is not easy. When doing it for the first time or still in the early days of training, usually the body is still stiff. The key to doing this technique is that the body is required to relax and stay calm. The more panicked, the more likely Grameds’ body to sink.

To practice this technique, Grameds can do it in two ways, namely floating standing or floating on his back.

To practice standing buoyancy, you needs to stand on the edge of the pool. For safety, choose a swimming pool that is not too deep. Make sure everything is safe and slowly, start diving with your hands holding on to the edge of the pool.

After that, take a deep breath and try to push you body away from the edge of the pool. Position your hands and feet parallel to the surface of the water. Don’t forget to move your hands like a chicken wing and your legs move like your feet when doing the breaststroke.

Meanwhile, to practice the ability to float on your back, Grameds can position the body upright but the head is facing straight up. Don’t forget to step on the bottom of the swimming pool.

After that, hold the edge of the pool, straighten your legs, straighten them, and make sure your ears are submerged in the water. To find a balanced position, many experts recommend doing the above steps 10 to 15 times.

2. Breathing Techniques

Breathing is very important in swimming because the strength and speed of a swimmer is strongly influenced by the strength of Grameds breath. First, Grameds stands low on the edge of the pool, but makes sure his face remains above the water’s surface.

Second, breathe through your mouth. Hold for some time and put Grameds head in the water. Don’t forget to exhale through Grameds nose. The thing to remember is to inhale through the mouth and exhale through the nose. Don’t turn it upside down, Grameds.

Third, which is no less important, doing exercises continuously until Grameds finds a distinctive breathing pattern according to Grameds’ own abilities. It is recommended by experts, breathing exercises are carried out 10-15 times after exercise so that Grameds breath is strong.

3. Glide Technique

This technique is an attempt to balance the body at the beginning of swimming. The gliding technique is done by launching the body horizontally under the surface of the water.

First, Grameds entered the pool and stood with his back to the pool wall. Then one foot is pressed against the wall with the toes facing down. This position is very important to increase the surface area of ​​the repulsion force when sliding.

Second, using your feet, push your body to slide. Then position your hands parallel straight ahead to break up the water so that not much force is wasted due to the resistance of the water. As much as possible, keep your head in the water and your ears at the level of your arms.

Don’t forget to practice the steps as often as possible until Grameds finds a balance in doing the gliding technique. Not only that, it was necessary for Grameds to control fear and confidence. Because some people fail not in technique, but he has lost before trying because he is not confident and afraid.

D. Types of Forces Used in Swimming

There are four styles that are often used or contested, namely freestyle, breaststroke or frog style, backstroke, and butterfly or dolphin style. Each type of force has its own characteristic motion. Come on, let’s study Grameds together:

1. Freestyle ( Freestyle / Front Crawl )

Freestyle is a style that was first used by swimmers in prehistoric times. It is estimated that a thousand years BC, in Assyria the freestyle was used.

This style became the first style to be taught in the swimming sports curriculum. This style is known to be effective and efficient because the swimmer moves faster. However, the freestyle involves almost the entire body to move.

Freestyle is not bound by certain movements. Even so, the conditions for doing so are not many.

How to do freestyle:

Grameds stood by the pool to slide.
After sliding, position your chest and face facing the water.
Move your feet as if you were kicking your feet up and down and down and up continuously. Make sure your feet are parallel to the water.
Move hands alternately right and left like someone pedaling.
Grameds can take a breath by turning to the right or left. So that Grameds breathes a lot of oxygen and does not get water in the mouth, when taking a breath, make sure the position of the mouth is above the surface of the water.

2. Breaststroke or Frog Style ( Breaststroke )

In the early 19th century, in military schools the styles taught in swimming were breaststroke and freestyle. So the two styles are often referred to as the school style.

As the name implies, the movement of this style is similar to how a frog swims. For relaxed situations such as recreation, breaststroke is often chosen. However, this style is also contested in swimming championships.

The way to do the frog style is:

a. After sliding, keep your chest and head facing the water.

b. Open both sides by kicking out.

c. Open both hands to the sides so that the water can be split so that the body moves forward faster.

d. When the hand movement is complete, both feet kick the water outwards like a frog’s leg kicks water.

e. The legs and arms are moved alternately. When the legs move, the hands are still with a straight forward position. When the hands move, the legs are still straight back.

3. Backstroke ( Backstroke )

Named the backstroke because Grameds’ back is facing the water. That is, the chest and face are faced upwards. With this position, Grameds will find it easier to open his eyes and breathe. As a consequence, the swimmer cannot see the goal easily, because it is behind the swimmer.

The backstroke is actually almost the same as the freestyle. But in the opposite direction. In the freestyle, the chest is facing the water, in the backstroke, the back is facing the water.

The backstroke is somewhat different from the other styles. If you start in another style from the top of the pool, while the backstroke starts from inside the pool .

How to do swimming using the backstroke is:

a. Position your body on your back in the water.

b. Glide in that position. After that, alternately, move both hands from behind the head to the waist. So that the speed is higher, hand movements are conditioned like pedaling.

c. The feet kick the water up and down alternately.

d. Do it calmly. Not only that, the body is also required to be flexible and not stiff.

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